Sponge City Concept: Urban floods have grown to be more and more common in most parts of the globe. There are lots of costs involved, financial and human when floods exist in metropolitan areas. Experts predict the issue could easily get worse as time passes, because of global warming factors. The pavements and paved roads in towns and metropolitan areas are non-absorbent, and also the land underneath the pavements cannot absorb water. This can lead to floods causing heavy damage, in addition to huge wastage of water which might have been used/conserved. The sponge city concept, therefore, is really a unique one, which can help to steer clear of the floods.
What is the sponge city concept?
Trillions of liters of water flow to the earth, and many from it are funneled off to rivers and oceans with drains and gutters. Whenever a city infrastructure isn’t planned in method to include new structures, there are no drains or gutters to aid in ton prevention. Urban floods have destroyed the homes of countless individuals in Chennai and Mumbai. To avoid this case, rainwater needs to be collected, reused, and controlled.
The sponge city concept would be to design metropolitan areas in ways that maintain all surface water runoffs that you can use later, thereby creating metropolitan areas which absorb water after which release that water when it’s needed, in only what sort of sponge behaves. The pavements can be created absorbent, so the metropolitan areas become spongier and smarter.
Man-made and natural solutions for spongier cities
The person-made solutions include eco-friendly infrastructure enhancements in planning cities. Natural solutions include restoring the initial waterways which existed before the growth and development of the town.
Man-made solutions: Porous pavements, bioswales, and rain gardens
1. Porous pavements
Traditional pavements or roads are built using sand and gravel. They are compact structures that leave hardly any space between your particles which doesn’t allow rainwater to seep into the ground. They have an ‘air void’ of just 3%.
One way for ton prevention within the sponge city concept would be to construct permeable pavements produced from porous asphalt. This kind of asphalt is made from bigger gemstones and it has cellulose fibers that support the asphalt together.
In porous asphalt, the environment void is up to 15-20%. These porous asphalts are put on a kind of stabilizing material in addition to a gravel layer. This behaves just like a reservoir that ultimately disperses water into the ground/soil.
2. Bioswales and rain gardens
Another method within the sponge city concept for ton management is the making of bioswales and rain gardens. Rain gardens are usually depressions in the soil, that are grown with plants that really help to absorb the rainwater. Landscapers can empty their rain gardens rather than sewers, thus decreasing sewage overflows resulting in tons in storms and high downpours.
Bioswale is an even bigger rain garden that is engineered. It’s produced by looking into making much deeper, bigger depressions and also the water build-up temporarily, and then drain gradually. Bioswales are a ton management method that utilizes R-Tanks, (containers much like milk crates) which may be stacked much like Legos underneath the ground, which can handle bearing/holding huge lots of water, and which could release water into the surrounding soil.
Examples of man-made solutions: Lingang and Pittsburgh
1. Lingang, China
Lingang or Nanhui because it is now known, makes changes to the urban infrastructure and is just about the sponge town of Shanghai. The sponge city concept has been piloted in Lingang being an eco-friendly defense and drainage system as ton management measures. The town faces risks in the ocean levels that are rising each year. Rapid development blocked natural water to seep into the soil.
Rooftop plants, rain gardens, permeable pavements, and wetland areas have made it feasible for water to drain into the soil. The man-made Dishui lake works well for water conservation.
China launched the Sponge City initiative according to the sponge city concept, to construct 30 model metropolitan areas about this ideal.
The answer that Pittsburgh chose finally after many years of battling with stormwater was the sponge city concept. The idea permitted city planners to replan the urban plans and make elements that imitated the area’s natural hydrology. These components incorporated rain gardens in addition to bioswales.